Nobbs' Points, Gergonne Line
What are they?
A Mathematical Droodle


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Copyright © 1996-2018 Alexander Bogomolny

Nobbs' Points, Gergonne Line

The applet attempts to illustrate the following theorem:

Assume A', B', C' are the points of contact of the incircle of ΔABC: A' on side BC, etc. Denote the intersection of AB and A'B' as C'', that of AC and A'C' as B'', and let A'' be the intersection of BC and B'C'. Then points A'', B'', and C'' are collinear.

Gergonne line

The points A'', B'', and C'' are known as Nobbs' points. The theorem tells us the Nobbs' points of a triangle are collinear. The line the points lie on was named the Gergonne line by Adrian Oldknow [Oldknow, pp. 324-325] after J. D. Gergonne. The reason for the name is as follows.

It is known that the lines AA', BB', and CC' meet at the Gergonne point Ge of ΔABC. Put another way, this means that two triangles ABC and A'B'C' are perspective in Ge. By Desargues' theorem, triangles perspective from a point are also perspective from a line. Thus the corresponding side lines of triangles ABC and A'B'C' cross in the points that belong to the same line. This is the Gergonne line of Oldknow.

I'll give an additional argument in support of that nomenclature: the Gergonne line is the polar of the Gergonne point Ge in the incircle of ΔABC. Indeed,

A'B'is the polar ofC, 
ABis the polar ofC'. Therefore,
C''is the pole ofCC', by La Hire's theorem.

Similarly, A'' is the pole of AA' and B'' is the pole of BB'. Since their polars AA', BB', and CC' are concurrent (in the Gergonne point Ge), the poles A'', B'', and C'' are collinear to a line (the Gergonne line, naturally.)

Note that if one of the triangles ABC and A'B'C' is equilateral, so is the other, and in this case the Gergonne line is the line at infinity.


ΔA'B'C' is known as the contact triangle (and also Gergonne triangle) of ΔABC. ΔABC is the tangent(ial) triangle of ΔA'B'C'.

(From a somewhat different perspective this same configuration is studied elsewhere. A more general statement is also available.)


  1. A. Oldknow, The Euler-Gergonne-Soddy Triangle of a Triangle, Amer Math Monthly, Vol. 103, No. 4 (Apr. 1996), 319-329

Poles and Polars


  1. All about Symmedians
  2. Symmedian and Antiparallel
  3. Symmedian and 2 Antiparallels
  4. Symmedian in a Right Triangle
  5. Nobbs' Points and Gergonne Line
  6. Three Tangents Theorem
  7. A Tangent in Concurrency
  8. Symmedian and the Tangents
  9. Ceva's Theorem
  10. Bride's Chair
  11. Star of David
  12. Concyclic Circumcenters: A Dynamic View
  13. Concyclic Circumcenters: A Sequel
  14. Steiner's Ratio Theorem
  15. Symmedian via Squares and a Circle
  16. Symmedian via Parallel Transversal and Two Circles
  17. Symmedian and the Simson
  18. Characterization of the Symmedian Point with Medians and Orthic Triangle
  19. A Special Triangle with a Line Through the Lemoine Point

Desargues' Theorem

|Activities| |Contact| |Front page| |Contents| |Geometry|

Copyright © 1996-2018 Alexander Bogomolny


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