# Iterations in Geometry, an example

Let there be given a triangle ABC and a point P. First, point P moves towards A. But half way from its original position to A it makes a turn and continues towards B. However, half way from B, it turns towards C. Half way towards C, it turns towards A, and so on.

Verify and try to prove that point P eventually settles into cycling between three successive positions irrespective of its initial position. These three positions form a triangle whose area is 1/7 that of the area of triangle ABC.

(Click anywhere in the applet to start iterations.)

What if applet does not run? |

|Activities| |Contact| |Front page| |Contents| |Geometry|

Copyright © 1996-2018 Alexander BogomolnyFrom its initial position point P moves to (P + A)/2. From here on the next step, it moves half distance towards B. It's new position is at

We may now consider a function f of a point P in a plane defined by

This function defines an iterative process: _{n+1} = f(P_{n}),_{0} = P,

P_{n+1} - P_{n} = f(P_{n}) - f(P_{n-1}) = (P_{n} + D)/8 - (P_{n-1} + D)/8 = (P_{n} - P_{n-1})/8.

In other words, the distance between P_{n+1} and P_{n} is 1/8 the distance between P_{n} and P_{n-1}. The latter is of course 1/8 the previous distance:

P_{n} - P_{n-1} = (P_{n-1} - P_{n-2})/8.

Which means that P_{n+1} - P_{n} = (P_{n-1} - P_{n-2})/8^{2}. Continuing in this manner we obtain that

P_{n+1} - P_{n} = (P_{1} - P_{0})/8^{n}.

Remembering the definitions of P_{0} and P_{1}, this is the same as

P_{n+1} - P_{n} = (D - 7P)/8^{n+1}.

Write a sequence of similar identities for finitely many indices n and sum them up (let

P_{m} - P_{m-1} = (D - 7P)/8^{m}

P_{m-1} - P_{m-2} = (D - 7P)/8^{m-1}

...

P_{n+2} - P_{n+1} = (D - 7P)/8^{n+2}

P_{n+1} - P_{n} = (D - 7P)/8^{n+1}

Summing all of these up, we get

P_{m} - P_{n} = (D - 7P)(1 + 2^{-1} + ... + 2^{-(m-n)})·2^{-n}

Since the sum in parentheses is less then 2, we may claim that {P_{n}} is a Cauchy sequence. Since the plane along with the real line are complete metric spaces, the sequence {P_{n}} has a limit which we denote Q. From

P_{n+1} = f(P_{n}) = (P_{n} + D)/8

we obtain Q = (Q + D)/8, or Q = D/7 = (A + 2B + 4C)/7.

Other vertices of the limiting triangle are found by cycling the symbols in that expression:

There are several ways to prove that that triangle has the area 1/7 that of triangle ABC. The simplest is probably to recognize a construction we discussed on another occasion. One can also use the barycentric coordinates to identify the intersection A' of AD and BC. A' divides BC in a 2:1 ratio, which naturally leads to the same result.

The above problem admits a two-fold generalization.

### Limits in Geometry

- Two Circles and a Limit
- A Geometric Limit
- Iterations in Geometry, an example
- Iterated Function Systems

|Activities| |Contact| |Front page| |Contents| |Geometry|

Copyright © 1996-2018 Alexander Bogomolny71532836