# Projective Proof of Pascal's Theorem

What if applet does not run? |

The applet illustrates a derivation of Pascal's theorem from Chasles' theorem.

I'll use the symbol "^" to denote the intersection of two lines, i.e. the point incident to the two lines. Similarly, the same symbol is used to denoted the line passing through two points, i.e., incident to the two points, with no ambiguity. Thus let *A*, *B*, *C*, *D*, *E*, *F* be six points on a conic *c* (ellipse in the applet above.) Introduce

*P* = *AB* ^ *DE*,

*Q* = *CD* ^ *FA*,

*p* = *P* ^ *Q*,

*L*, *M* = *c* ^ *p*,

*R* = *EF* ^ *p*,

*S* = *BC* ^ *p*.

*T* = *AD* ^ *p* is an auxiliary point useful in the proof. The idea is to show that *R* = *S*.

(LQRM) | = F(LAEM) |

= D(LAEM) | |

= (LTPM) | |

= A(LDBM) | |

= C(LDBM) | |

= (LQSM) |

And, since the value of the cross ratio and three collinear points define the fourth point uniquely, we see that indeed *R* = *S*.

### Remark

Chasles' theorem has been used twice in the proof: passing from pencil F to pencil D and from pencil A to pencil C. However, if the points L, A, E, M in the first case and L, D, B, M in the second, are collinear, the identities hold directly from the definition of the cross-ratio thus obviating the need for Chasles' theorem. Thus the above derivation immediately applies to Pappus' theorem.

### Pascal and Brianchon Theorems

- Pascal's Theorem
- Pascal in Ellipse
- Pascal's Theorem, Homogeneous Coordinates
- Projective Proof of Pascal's Theorem
- Pascal Lines: Steiner and Kirkman Theorems
- Brianchon's theorem
- Brianchon in Ellipse
- The Mirror Property of Altitudes via Pascal's Hexagram
- Pappus' Theorem
- Pencils of Cubics
- Three Tangents, Three Chords in Ellipse
- MacLaurin's Construction of Conics
- Pascal in a Cyclic Quadrilateral
- Parallel Chords
- Parallel Chords in Ellipse
- Construction of Conics from Pascal's Theorem
- Pascal: Necessary and Sufficient
- Diameters and Chords
- Chasing Angles in Pascal's Hexagon
- Two Triangles Inscribed in a Conic
- Two Triangles Inscribed in a Conic - with Solution
- Two Pascals Merge into One
- Surprise: Right Angle in Circle

### Chasles' Theorem

- Chasles' Theorem
- Chasles' Theorem, a Simple Proof
- Pascal's Theorem, Homogeneous Coordinates
- Chasles' Theorem, a Proof
- Projective Proof of Pascal's Theorem

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