# Bolzano Theorem (BT)

*Let, for two real a and b, a < b, a function f be continuous on a closed interval [a, b] such
that f(a) and f(b) are of opposite signs. Then there exists a number
x _{0}[a, b] with f(x_{0})=0.*

## Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT)

*Let, for two real a and b, a < b, a function f be continuous on a closed interval [a, b] such
that f(a)<f(b). Then for every y _{0} such that f(a)<y_{0}<f(b) there exists a number x_{0}[a, b]
with f(x_{0})=y_{0}.*

Clearly BT is only a special case of IVT. However it's interesting that the more general IVT
could be deduced from its special case, BT. Indeed, let f(a)<y_{0}<f(b). Introduce
a new function g(x)=f(x)-y_{0}. Then it follows that g(a)=f(a)-y_{0}<0 whereas
g(b)=f(b)-y_{0}>0. Therefore, g(a) and g(b) are of opposite signs. Additionally, g
is continuous wherever f is. In particular, g is continuous on [a, b] and thus satisfies
the conditions of BT. Therefore, there exists x_{0}[a, b] such that
g(x_{0})=0. Written explicitly this says f(x_{0})-y_{0}=0 or, finally,

_{0})=y

_{0}

Q.E.D.

A complete proof of the Bolzano Theorem appeares elsewhere.

|Contact| |Front page| |Contents| |Generalizations|

Copyright © 1996-2018 Alexander Bogomolny

65841444