# Book 10 Proposition 58

Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων πέμπτης, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ῥητὸν καὶ μέσον δυναμένη. Χωρίον γὰρ τὸ ΑΓ περιεχέσθω ὑπὸ ῥητῆς τῆς ΑΒ καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων πέμπτης τῆς ΑΔ διῃρημένης εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα κατὰ τὸ Ε, ὥστε τὸ μεῖζον ὄνομα εἶναι τὸ ΑΕ: λέγω [δή], ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΓ χωρίον δυναμένη ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ῥητὸν καὶ μέσον δυναμένη. Κατεσκευάσθω γὰρ τὰ αὐτὰ τοῖς πρότερον δεδειγμένοις: φανερὸν δή, ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΓ χωρίον δυναμένη ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΞ. δεικτέον δή, ὅτι ἡ ΜΞ ἐστιν ἡ ῥητὸν καὶ μέσον δυναμένη. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΕ, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΘΕ, τουτέστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΝΞ: αἱ ΜΝ, ΝΞ ἄρα δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΔ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ πέμπτη, καί [ἐστιν] ἔλασσον αὐτῆς τμῆμα τὸ ΕΔ, σύμμετρος ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΔ ἐστιν ἀσύμμετρος: καὶ ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα τῇ ΑΕ ἐστιν ἀσύμμετρος μήκει. [αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΕ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι.] μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΚ, τουτέστι τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΜΝ, ΝΞ. καὶ ἐπεὶ σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει, τουτέστι τῇ ΕΚ, ἀλλὰ ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΖ σύμμετρός ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ΕΖ ἄρα τῇ ΕΚ σύμμετρός ἐστιν. καὶ ῥητὴ ἡ ΕΚ: ῥητὸν ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΕΛ, τουτέστι τὸ ΜΡ, τουτέστι τὸ ὑπὸ ΜΝΞ: αἱ ΜΝ, ΝΞ ἄρα δυνάμει ἀσύμμετροί εἰσι ποιοῦσαι τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων μέσον, τὸ δ' ὑπ' αὐτῶν ῥητόν. Ἡ ΜΞ ἄρα ῥητὸν καὶ μέσον δυναμένη ἐστὶ καὶ δύναται τὸ ΑΓ χωρίον: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If an area be contained by a rational straight line and the fifth binomial, the “side” of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of a rational plus a medial area. For let the area AC be contained by the rational straight line AB and the fifth binomial AD divided into its terms at E, so that AE is the greater term; I say that the “side” of the area AC is the irrational straight line called the side of a rational plus a medial area. For let the same construction be made as before shown; it is then manifest that MO is the “side” of the area AC. It is then to be proved that MO is the side of a rational plus a medial area. For, since AG is incommensurable with GE, [X. 18] therefore AH is also commensurable with HE, [VI. 1, X. 11] that is, the square on MN with the square on NO; therefore MN, NO are incommensurable in square. And, since AD is a fifth binomial straight line, and ED the lesser segment, therefore ED is commensurable in length with AB. [X. Deff. II. 5] But AE is incommensurable with ED; therefore AB is also incommensurable in length with AE. [X. 13] Therefore AK, that is, the sum of the squares on MN, NO, is medial. [X. 21] And, since DE is commensurable in length with AB, that is, with EK, while DE is commensurable with EF, therefore EF is also commensurable with EK. [X. 12] And EK is rational; therefore EL, that is, MR, that is, the rectangle MN, NO, is also rational. [X. 19] Therefore MN, NO are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial, but the rectangle contained by them rational.