Adams' Apportionment Method

The apportionment method suggested in 1822 by former president John Quincy Adams as a remedy for Hamilton's method ills was never used by the US Congress.

(Bold numbers could be clicked upon. To increase the number, click to the right of its vertical center line. To decrease it click to the left of the line. Dragging the mouse near the center line will accomplish the same task, but faster.)

This applet requires Sun's Java VM 2 which your browser may perceive as a popup. Which it is not. If you want to see the applet work, visit Sun's website at, download and install Java VM and enjoy the applet.

What if applet does not run?

The given total number of seats (23 in the applet) is to be apportioned between several (3 at the ouset) states proportionally to their populations. To accomplish that task according to Adams,

  1. Compute the divisor D = (Total population)/(Number of seats)
  2. Increase D by an amount d such that when state allocations {(State population)/(D + d)} are rounded upward, they add up to the exact number of seats.

(One of the applets at this site combines Adams' and four additional methods of apportionment under a single umbrella.)

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  • Fair Division: Method of Sealed Bids
  • Fair Division: Method of Sealed Bids II
  • Fast Power Indices
  • Five Methods of Apportionment
  • Four Voting Methods
  • Hamilton's Apportionment Method
  • Huntington-Hill Apportionment Method
  • Jefferson's Apportionment Method
  • Method of Markers II
  • Shapley-Shubik Power Index Calculator
  • Voting Methods and Social Choice
  • Webster's Apportionment Method
  • Weighted Voting and Power Indices
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