Incident Center Circles and Cardioid

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The center-circles that intersect at a point (say P) and whose centers lie on a circle - the next center-circle in the hierarchy of circles. The point P is also incident to this latter center-circle. This is how the cardioids came into the play - as envelopes of families of circles. Not surprisingly, the common point of the center-circles lies at the cusp of the cardioids.


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